Facebook Marketing


  1. What key objectives can be satisfied with Facebook Advertising?

According to eMarketers, Google and Facebook account for about 58% of digital marketing spend with both accounting for over 90% of the global digital spend in 2017 and 2018. Facebook on the other hand on its own accounts for over 40% of the advertising done on social media platforms thereby making it one of the go-to place for digital marketers.

According to Facebook, 92% of social marketers are using Facebook and the reason or objective is to:

  • Create brand awareness
  • Improve considerations and
  • Increase conversions.

The above three objectives are much more effectively done on Facebook than other social media platforms because of the various tools provided by Facebook to advertisers especially targeting tools, which can be customized for interests, locations, activities, professions, etc.

The images below demonstrate the above statistic:

The comparison of revenues generated between Google and Facebook in the US.

A picture of the percentage and dominance of Facebook when it comes to social marketers and the over 30 million businesses using Facebook to create awareness and improve considerations

  • What are the main Facebook advertising formats available?

According to Facebook.com there are predominantly six advertising formats available and these include:

Image 1: Instant experience ad.

The instant experience can be used all other types of adverts however it’s a mobile only ad used to highlight a company’s brand, products and to create awareness.

Image 2: Collection Ads

Collection ads allows you to combine video with images or slideshows. It is meant to allow users interact with your content and ads.

Image 3: Carousel ads

This allows you to show case upto 10 images or videos within a single ad each with its own link.

Image 4: Slideshow Ads.

Slideshow can be used to achieve all the various objectives of Facebook ads. It is allows you to combine multiple images, videos, texts and sound to capture the attention of the audience.

Image 5:  Video Ads.

Video ads allows you to tell your story in an ad with the aim of reaching more people, engaging your audience, driving traffic to a specific landing page as well as increase conversions using call to actions. Or it can just be for creating awareness and giving valuable information.

Image 6: Image Ads

Most ads on Facebook and Instagram must carry at least an image and image ads are used for Brand Awareness, Engagement, Reach and Store Traffic advertising objectives.

  • How can you target audiences when creating a Facebook advertisement?

There are several ways one can target audiences on a Facebook ad campaign. However, the principal way is by creating an audience or custom audiences based on certain factors. These factors when creating an audience may be age, gender, location, position as well as language. In creating a custom audience, while still considering the above factors, it is also important to consider how that audience has interacted with you in the past. For example, which page they visited, what actions did they take while on your site, how they got to your site, as well as why they left. With this information you can create a custom audience. Of recent, some marketers create a lookalike audience based on a certain custom audience for new locations, geographical radius or product.

According to adespresso by Hootsuit, the following are the various ways we can target audiences on a Facebook Ad.

  • Saved Audiences Targeting: These are audiences one can create based on specific interests, behaviours, demographics, or geographical location. It can be also based on language, career seniority, salaries, etc.
  • Behaviour Based Targeting: This kind of targeting allows for us to target audiences based on specific interests like the things they buy, anniversaries, personal history, courses they support, pages they liked, etc.

Interest Based Targeting: This is when marketers target audiences based on things they are interested in like fashion, music. In marketing it allows you to focus your targeting on specific things like people interested in certain products or interested in your competitors. With Facebook marketing, you can type in one interest, and Facebook algorithms will suggest similar keywords people were interested in.

Demographic Based Targeting: This allows us to target audiences based on three key factors among several. We can target by gender, age or language.

Location Based Targeting: This simply allows us to target specific locations like New York, London, or any other Location we desire, once you key in the location, the Facebook algorithm will automatically give you an estimated reach based on the location.

From the above methods of targeting in a Facebook Ad, we can create several ads based on different personas and audiences.

  • Explain the key elements that make up a great Facebook advertisement.

According to social media week, there are five key elements that make up a successful Facebook campaign. These include the following:

Clear and Fine-Tuned Objectives: Knowing exactly what you want to achieve before running a Facebook campaign will determine the success of such a campaign. Ads succeed or fail based on the clarity of their objectives. According to Charlie Lawrence, ‘Facebook has three objective categories: Awareness, Consideration, and Conversion … The best way to determine your campaign objective is to work backward from your goal. If your goal is to generate sales for your e-commerce business, for example, you could offer people 10 percent off of their first order to entice them to make a purchase.’

Focus on winning Audiences: Facebook provides a great amount of resources to help marketers reach and target the right audiences, however to get there one creates various audience personas as we have seen above, but not all these audiences can perform or bring in the same desired results therefore it is important to focus on audiences that bring in as close a desired outcome as can be expected. According to Nazim Agabekov “Like any other marketing campaign or promotion, running ads on Facebook requires a certain budget, and it’s important that you’re smart about your ad spend. You need to be diligent and quick. Find and pick your winning audiences fast. Too often I see people waste needless days and hundreds of dollars targeting people who are clearly not worth targeting.” For Agabekov, finding a “winning” audience entailed using a customized audience tool to identify “the largest and most profitable audiences” This has to be measured against current and previous campaign results to find the best ROI for every dollar invested into marketing.

Remarketing: As part of winning campaign, remarketing is very important, Facebook has toold that enable marketers to track their audiences’ behaviours and activities while on their website or page. This offers a unique opportunity for marketers to remarket to audiences that have engaged with their content or product in some way. Traditionally audiences interact with a product or firm seven times on average before making a purchase, with remarketing this can be cut down to generate sales or increase the number of quality leads. Therefore, as part of a winning Facebook campaign, remarketing must be a vital part to the success equation. After the campaigns end, remarketing kicks in to boost the sales, increase quality leads and cement brand image.

Have a Unique Value Proposition: To ensure an ad is successful, as much as its important to have good graphic designs and imagery, video or written content, without a unique value proposition, it will be difficult to generate any quality leads. One may get clicks but for the clicks to translate into leads or sales, the advert or campaign must offer something unique and valuable to the audience to get them follow through to the basket and check out successfully. Too often marketers focus only on clicks but in todays world, leads and sales determine how successful a campaign is. Mary Lister explains it thus, “It’s okay to be vague about the nitty-gritty, but make sure the value is crystal clear. This will work especially well if you have numbers to offer!”

Split Testing: Until recently, marketers would not really know whether an ad campaign will do well until it is put on the web. However, Facebook of recent has introduce a new tool which can allow marketers to see similar ads across different audiences. When marketers use this program, Facebook automatically collects the data on their behalf, measuring results in everything from brand awareness to conversions. According to Facebook’s own data, split testing has helped marketers “produce strategies with a median 14 percent improvement in CPA.

This tool allows marketers to be better understand what to expect as they relate and target their audiences.








Email Marketing In Today’s Digital Space


Email Marketing is one of the first digital marketing techniques used to communicate with prospects, clients and staff alike. It is cost effective and when properly used and implemented delivers great value for money.

According to Daly 2014, when email marketing is properly utilised as a mean of marketing it has a potential of 4300% ROI, meaning for every $1 spent on campaigns it can yield up to $43.

There are various kinds of email marking campaigns including among others, promotional, transactional, informative, holiday or event emails each meant to communicate a specific message to the buyer persona in question.

Also According to Fulcrumtech.net, ‘a survey of marketers in the United States conducted by the Direct Marketing Association and Demand Metric demonstrated that email achieved a median ROI of 122%, which was more than 4 times greater than any other marketing channel, including social media (28%), direct mail (27%), and paid search (25%). In addition, email marketing generated $44 ROI for every $1 spent in 2016, which was up from $38 in 2015’

Below we shall therefore explore some of the best email marketing practices and some Don’ts

Five Best Practices in Email Marketing according to fulcrumtech.net 2018.

  • Create campaigns that take into account the mobile user, because mobile friendly email campaigns have a better open and response rate than desktop only friendly campaigns. A study conducted in 2016 by Litmus looking at 13 billion emails opened in 2016, 54% were opened on mobile devices, while 19% were opened on desktops which eventually dropped to 16% by end of the year. In another study in the same year, more than 70% of respondents said they would delete an email if didn’t look good on their mobile. This alone stresses the importance of designing campaigns with mobile users in mind.
  • Personalize your email campaigns. Using subscribers names on the email campaigns makes them more inclined to read the emails, and also signing the email with your details creates a more personal approach giving your readers more inclination to open and read the emails.
  • Integrate your email marketing strategy with social media. According to fulcrumtech, by integrating your email marketing strategy with social media, you automatically increase your click through rate by 65% and open rates by 19% especially if you add Youtube videos on your email marketing campaigns.
  • Optimize your email send frequency and cadence. This is so because there is positive correlation between your frequency and the responsiveness from your subscribers. It is better to send emails once a more and be consistent than to send four times a month and not send two months after that. Consistency is very important especially because it creates a feeling of expectancy from your quality subscribers.
  • Do Not Buy a mailing list. It is better to build and maintain a quality mailing list than to have thousands of leads which are not qualified nor interested in what you have to say. As such it is better to have 200 subscribers who want to read from you than 20,000 who don’t know you nor want to read from you, because it will create a negative image which must be avoided at all cost.

Apart from the above it is also important to test or preview your emails before sending, track and see what the response rate is and amend to have better outcomes, as well as segment your email according to your audience, times and seasons.

  • Do Not Spam Your Subscribers: Most marketers feel that spamming or bombarding their subscribers with emails will move their agenda forward faster. This has been proven to be counterproductive because research shows that most people simply unsubscribe or delete any email which they perceive as spam.
  • None Segmentation: You want to avoid this at all cost especially when your subscribers come from various geographic locations and came to you for various reasons. Unless it is general update of terms and policies or other important update, it is very important to segment your email according to your audiences’ locations and buyer personas so as to keep your content relevant and useful.

Ignoring GDRP: By all means ensure your email marketing campaigns comply with personal data protection and ensure you only market to people you have received protection from, defaulters could be fined up to a years’ worth of company profits

In conclusion, email marketing remains a very effective part of digital marketing provided it is properly designed, distributed and used. In today’s digital marketing space, inbound marketing is much more preferred as it builds trust with the audience, as such email marketing which holds a lot more content can be an effective tool used for the distribution of useful content to build trust and lead potential customers or lead into actual buying customers. Though there are new rules which regulate the market, it still remains one of the most effective and cost-effective ways of generation amazing ROI for companies that use it wisely.

By Gerald Chiatoh.

Content Marketing

What is it, and where can i find best practice in the travel industry?

  • What is content Marketing?Content marketing deals with the creation, distribution and promotion of valuable information to various audiences using inbound marketing techniques.

    -It helps with the optimization of various websites, blogs, pages and digital profiles and establishes credibility to ensures brand recognition

    -In this task we will explore how travel related firms use different contents for various personas.

    -Examples of contents to be explored are Blogs, Podcasts, Ebooks, Videos, infographics, checklists etc

  • Examples of best content used in a travel related firm

-Example 1: Trafalgar Tours

-Example 2: TripAdvisor

-Example 3: Lastminute.com

-Example 4: Secrete Escapes

What makes the above examples better than other sites such as Trivago?

-They made great use of Blogs to educate and inform their audiences

-The Also used great video contents

-They made use of guide books and e-books to

-They used various methods of CTAs

-Had different content for social media platforms

Conclusion: The better a firms content the better the SEO and traction online.






Personal Branding And Its Importance

Personal Branding


Personal branding is the use of media forums to shape people’s opinions or impressions of you. It is different from corporate branding in that, corporate branding deals focuses on the business while personal branding focuses on the person. It is about portraying oneself as a leader or influencer in a particular area of field and shifting people’s opinions in their favour with the ultimate goal of deriving a commercial value from it.

Today the most common method used to build a personal brand is social media, using platforms such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Telegram, Wechat, snapchat etc.

According to the Kajabi, ‘Personal branding refers to the process of establishing your public persona for your target audience. It involves carefully and accurately communicating your values, beliefs, goals, and purpose’.

And according to Forbes Business, Personal branding is the modern-day scorecard that measures a leader’s core message delivery, their professional presence in person and online, and their application of foundational values both in and out of the office. As technology continues to dominate common daily processes, personal branding is “the business of people,” inclusive of perceptions and proven career leverage’.

The Importance of Personal Branding:

  • A personal brand sets out your UPS (unique selling point) or what makes you unique or stand out
  • Connects you to your audience and builds trust for commercial value
  • Sets you apart as an influencer or leader or an authority in your chosen field
  • Brings clarity to your work and audiences
  • Gives you exposure to all categories of people and brings more catalogues of services or products that maybe aligned with yours.

How To use Social Media for Personal Branding:

  • Create social media profiles on platforms like LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snaptchat etc.
  • Join groups that provide same persona as you and build trust
  • Keep a consistent image across all the platforms
  • Regularly engage with your audiences
  • Diversify your content and ask for feedback
  • Curate content from influencers
  • Use hashtags properly, especially on twitter, remember LinkedIn is for professional postings alone.
  • Join discussions and monitor your name.
  • Regularly post images, videos that are engaging

Good Examples of Using Social Media for Personal Branding:




Gerald Chiatoh.

Inbound Marketing





Inbound marketing is about building relationship with the customer using less aggressive marketing content to attract the customer. As such unlike traditional marketing, inbound marketing is less intrusive and focuses on meeting the needs of the customer, it is geared at making the customer come to the you (firm) rather than you going to the customer.

Below we shall look closely at the inbound marketing techniques or methods of Helpscout.com and Hubspot.com.

Approach to Inbound Marketing Helpscout Vs Hubspot.

Helpscout.com Approach

They used self-explanatory headlines, coupled with explanatory videos and a simple updated website display which is also mobile friendly. They also have a social media presence and the use of call to action buttons to direct clients to navigate their website. They have one principal buyer persona.

Hubspot.com Approach is slightly different with the use of info-graphics, simple headlines, more social media presence, they also provide a lot of information and education materials and use call to actions to capture specific information from the customers. Most importantly they segmented their three buyer personas with clear information and headlines.

Strengths and weaknesses of the Approaches used:

In the case of Helpscout, the use of videos gives customers a more personal attachment to the company, and makes them more relatable, however this may not be ideal to certain audiences. Also focusing principally on one buyer persona may increase efficiency but again limiting it to one persona maybe challenging should customers require more methods and opportunities or personas.

In the case of Hubspot, They touch on all major techniques of inbound marketing, like updated content, use of social media, headings, multiple buyer personas as well as providing relevant and educative materials all of these keep customers engaged and wanting to know more, the social media presence gives them better coverage as well as exposure. However familiarity sometimes may breed contempt and when the customer sometimes is over informed through various channels by a single brand or company they get fed up and develop a negative attribution with the brand or company.

In all it could be said that hubspot is better at inbound marketing because of their use of most of the methods of inbound marketing, besides they are more active on social media than Helpscout making use of the six major platforms while Helpscout uses just three. Also hubspot is better because of their categorization of buyer personas, with clearly defined headings and call to actions for its customers, they also made provisions to help the customer on site by providing a live chat box and six languages in which customers can browse their site in, something helpscout did not provide.

How To Improve:

Helpscout can add more language options to its website like Chinese, Spanish, French and even Portuguese, and also increase its social media exposure on Instagram, WhatsApp etc so as to gain more presence and build more trust.

Hubspot on the other hand can make use of video content to create a more personal feeling for the customer while on the main page rather than using a call to action to send them to another page for that.


How Consumers Use Technology and its Impacts on Their Lives.

Goal or Objective of this task:

  • How consumers use technology and its impacts on their lives.


The introduction of the Arpanet project in 1962 and its subsequent evolution to the internet as we know it today has had profound impact on the lives of consumers:

What impact has the use of technology had on consumers?

Technology has had profound impact on the lives of consumers as seen in the following areas:

  • How the consumer access’ the internet
  • Digital devices used by the consumer or audiences
  • How consumers search for information
  • What consumers buy online
  • How consumers consume videos online and
  • What consumer trends have now emerged because of technology.


As marketers, one must constantly be in the lookout for new trends, and better ways of delivering quality and value to our clients and to do so we must be flexible and adaptable as well as well-informed through regular market research into emerging trends and patterns.


Apple’s Extended Marketing Mix

on the Blog post the objective is to use a set of images to demonstrate over time how Apple Inc has used the 7Ps of a marketing mix to become one of the most valuable brands in the world. we shall also in a second part to this blog explore one of the Ps (promotion) by looking at a couple of elements to see how Apple has applied it to set itself apart from the competition giving it the global dominance it enjoys today in the consumer electronic and tecchnology products.

  1. Product: This refers to the various products or services provided by apple to its customers

Iphone pricing

The above screenshot taken from the apple website shows one of Apple’s signature product the iPhone, there have been many older generations but the iPhone X is the latest most innovative Apple mobile device yet to be produced. This product came about as a result of over a decades work of research and innovation, proving once again that apple understands its customers taste.

2) Promotion: This is the medium by which apple reaches out and sells its products

Apple Mac

Above is a promotion of the Macbook by Apple, it carries a caption that makes you understand the intensity and quality of the product that even someone considered legally blind can create amazing photographs. This targets not just the elderly but also the visually impaired and inspires those who see clearly. The caption behind the mac, speaks of the thought behind the promotion or ad.

3) Price: This is what apple charges for its products.

Apple watch pricing

The above image shows the price of the Apple watch, at almost £400 per watch. Again a similar product by Apple’s competitors like the Galxy watch by Samsung will cost about £279 again more than a hundred pounds in premium by apple. However this price makes the apple customer to have a sense of luxury associated with the brand and for this apple charges more.

4) People: This refers to the people that run apple, or make up its ecosystem like customers, consultants as well as associated companies.

Apple people

The image above from apple website, shows apple enjoys a wealth of experience and knowledge equipped with varied skills in bringing to fruition the companys objectives. Tim Cook has been CEO since the passing of Steve Jobs and under him the company has continued to grow, these people work at apple, along thousands of others to deliver to their millions of clients the products backed by innovative thinking that the company has been enjoying for the past forty years.

5) Process: This is the means by which Apple gets its products, extends their services, and resolves issues with its customers and staff alike.

Apple suu

The above image shows men in blue shirts seating with customers advising them on various products, if they cannot handle the issue, they will then follow the customer support process and forward the query to the appropriate team within the office building. We also see a search bar where a customer can simply search for what they need help with and be directed to the right place to obtain such. The process is made simple to ensure customer satisfaction and maintain the premium branding position the company enjoys today.

6) Physical Evidence: This is the proof the conocept, proof of its products and existence and physical presence, it is also proof of its know how.

Apple cust

The above image shows a group of customers holding a number of apple products, from the picture we can see a MacBook, an iPhone, an iPod T-Shirt as well as evidence of a happy customer base.

7) Place: This refers to where people can find the Apple’s products like website in sotores or third party retailers.

Apple kyoto

The above image shows a flagship store of apple in Kyoto, Japan, the interior is designed to give a feeling of luxury that comes with the premium branding of the company, this design also gives the customer a subliminal buy signal to own an apple product. This is evidence is undeniable in design and look.


In the Next task we look at how Apple has successfully Applied the strategy of Promotion in its marketing mix to obtain the oustanding results evident in their global success. It should be noted that the home of Apple is the United States, but through an amazing promotion strategy, Apple today sells and does more business in China than it does at home, all of this is thanks to a successful promotional strategy.



Promotion also referred to as the promotional strategy is that part of the marketing mix that deals with a company telling its potential customer base what products or services it is selling. Apple through a carefully worked out strategy uses this strategy to tell the customer what products they have; how useful the products are and why they believe the products are right for the customer. While most of apple’s competitors use promotion only as a means of selling their products, Apple Inc, uses promotion as a means of expressing what they believe, and how what they believe is more valuable and therefore must have. This strategy has worked so very well for Apple over the years, because customers who use apple tend to have more than one Apple device and use at least two of apple services. This makes the shared believe by Apple to its customers ensure a more solid ecosystem of loyal customers.

In order for Apple to succeed in its promotions, the company has had to explain in various ways and channels why the customer should buy their product, how the product works, how secure the product is and what benefits there are in using the product. Apple carefully stays away from comparing its products with those of its competitors despite the fact that most competitors do the exact opposite, as such the strategy has clearly set Apple aside as company that delivers quality and premium products associated with luxury brands only. Apple is in the consumer electronic and technology market what Louis Vuitton is to the fashion brands or what Bugatti is in the luxury sport cars brand. This dominance comes with many benefits as such today apple is one of only two companies in the world valued at over one trillion dollars. It is also one the most valuable brands in the world.

Apple has used key promotional strategies such as advertising, personal selling, events as well as public relations and sales promotion to target its customers.

  • Advertising: Apple uses various advertising channels to reach its audiences, in the early days Apple used primarily radio advertisements to reach its audience all across the US and subsequently Europe. In Later years, Apple uses Television advertisements, Social Media advertisements, as well as billboards, magazines and journals to reach its audiences. For example, in its advertisement of the iPhone 3G as published on their YouTube Channel, we see two gentlemen carrying a suitcase, purportedly containing a very special device, the gentlemen are dressed up as agents of special forces or operatives giving more seriousness and subliminal message of how important the device is, then a voice message comes over with the message ‘its finally here, the first phone to beat the iPhone, download data twice as fast and for half the price, paused and continued , introducing the, the new iPhone 3G’. This TV commercial was carefully made to show the importance of the iPhone 3G and why you should have, because it downloads data twice as fast as any other or phone, it beats the performance of the previous best phone, and it comes for half the price.
  • PR or Public Relations: Apple is great at building its public relations image, in 2017, when the US Federal Government requested the company to grant a back access to an iPhone user suspected of terrorism, the CEO of the company said, doing such a thing will breach their customers trusts, and set a bad precedence for the company and its customers as such the company refused to grant the access. This went down extremely well with some apple users who viewed such a move as protecting their rights to privacy. Even non-apple users viewed the case favourably in that Government should not be able to bully companies to obtain the personal data of customers. Through the years using public relations apple has built a great brand image perceived by most as credible, durable, high quality and luxurious and most of all safe and secure.

In conclusion, Apple I believe Apple has done a great job using Promotion to achieve marketing success, this is evident in the number of products they sell annually, the stock price of the company as well as the brand value and overall perception of the company by its customers.